xi s< SPECIES " OF GIRAFFE 303 new-born young. The orbits are completely encircled by bone, and there is no lachrymal fossa, su common in Deer and Antelopes. There are no canines above ; but these are present in the lower jaw. The rudimentary digits of other Ruminants have dis- appeared in this genus. There are fourteen pairs of ribs as in many other Artiodactyla. The liver of the Giraffe l is, as in many, but not all, Ruminants, devoid of a gall-bladder ; neither has it a caudate or a Spigelian lobe. The caecum is actually largish (2-g- feet in length), "but is relatively very small, as the small and the large intestines measure 196 uncl *75 feet in length respectively. The Giraffe has a well-marked u ileo- caecal " gland, found in many Huminants ; its appearance in G-iraffa is especially compared by Garrod with its appearance in Considered by itself, Giraffa forms a very isolated type of Ruminant. But after we have dealt with certain facts con- cerning extinct forms clearly allied to GirttjfFa, the isolation of the family will be found to "be less marked. The Giraffe (" one who walks swiftly," the word means in Arabic) is, as every one knows, limited in its range to the African continent. It is not, however, so familiar a fact that there are two quite distinct species of Giraffe, one a northern form from Somaliland, and the other South African. The distinctness of these two, Cr. cameloyardalis and O. av straits, has been lately worked out in some detail by Mr. de Win ton.3 The principal point of difference between them consists in the large size of the median horn in the Cape species, which is represented by the merest excrescence in the other species. The Giraffe of West Africa is held to differ from the northern and southern species^, coming nearer to the former. It appears in the first place to be a larger animal, and slight differences in the skull have been pointed out. This series of peculiarities may be expressed, for those who do not object to trinomial nomenclature, by calling this novel western form Giraffn camel opcwdctlis perttfta. The existence of the three horns covered with unaltered skin is the main characteristic of this Ungulate. But the Giraffe also differs front other Artiodoetyles by its enormously long neck, which enables it to browse upon, trees inaccessible to the common herd 1 For the viscera, see Garrod, Proc. Zw>l, S&c. 1877, p. 5, etc. ; and &id. p. 289, eta * Proc. &&&L Swz. 1897, *>. 273.